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Army and politics

Edited by Evgeny N. Pashentsev and Constantine V. Miniar-Beloroutchev
Introduction by Hector Luis Saint-Pierre

UDC 32:355

Charitable Fund "Slovo" Russian Progressive Review International Center for Social-Political Studies and Consulting Printed Sims Ltd E-mail: intcentr@aha.ru

Published with the academic assistance of Moscow City Pedagogic University and the Center for Latin American Studies, State University of Sao Paulo

(C) Authors, 2002
(C) E.N. Pashentsev and C.V. Miniar-Beloroutchev, editing, 2002

Compilation and Publishing Copyright © by Russian Progressive Review

All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission of Russian Progressive Review

ISBN 5-9290-0044-1

Please send your letters and comments to the editors at: Novokuznetskaya 16 st., Moscow 109017, Russia E-mail: info@ArmiesAndPolitics.ru

Printed in Russian Federation

INTRODUCTION
p 9

COUP D'ETAT, INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT AND PROCESS OF POLITICAL TRANSITION
Jesus de Andres Sanz
p 15

BULGARIA AND THE ARMED CONFLICT IN CENTRAL AMERICA, 1979-1989. NEW ARCHIVAL SOURCES
Jordan Baev
p 33

FROM THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY TO THE SUB-REGIONAL SECURITY COMMUNITY? AN INTERIM BALANCE SHEET OF THE MERCOSUR
Klaus Bodemer
p 46

THE INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING OF THE VENEZUELAN ARMED FORCES, NATIONAL AND REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS
Tania Delgado
p 67

RETHINKING THE BRAZILIAN ARMED FORCES: NO ROLE IN SIGHT, WHAT FUNCTION THEN?
Rene Armand Dreifuss
p 89

LATIN AMERICA: THE PRESENT PATTERN OF INDUSTRIAL COLONIALISM
Victor Manuel Figueroa Sepulveda
p 114

THE LATIN AMERICAN ARMED FORCES AND THE STRUGGLE AGAINST DRUG TRAFFIC: THE CASE OF BRAZIL
Luis Alexandre Fuccille
p 137

THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, FACING THE INSTITUTIONAL CRISIS IN SANTO DOMINGO, 1964-1965
Nidia Elsa Gale
p 146

THE HEMISPHERIC LANDSCAPE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
Isabel Jaramillo Edwards
p 167

GLOBALIZATION AND NEOLIBERALISM
David M. Kotz
p 182

THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF CUBA IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Katarzyna Krzywicka
p 204

THE ARGENTINE FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE CRUMBLING DEMOCRACY OF THE SIXTIES AND THE PRESENCE OF THE MILITARY SECTORS AS A POWER FACTOR, 1958-1966
Maria de Monserrat Llairo, Raimundo Siepe
p 224

CHINA'S ECONOMIC INTERACTION WITH THE PACIFIC ASIAN REGION IN THE LIGHT OF GLOBALIZATION AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON REGIONAL SECURITY
Vasily Mikheev
p 236

TEXAS AND CALIFORNIA IN THE U.S.-MEXICAN RELATIONS AND THE COMING OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR OF 1846-1848
Constantine Miniar-Beloroutchev
p 261

THE ARMY AND POLITICS IN INDIA
Arun Mohanty
p 276

THE GROWTH OF CLERICALISM IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY: DANGEROUS TENDENCIES
Sergey Mozgovoy
p 288

THE EXPERIENCE OF MILITARY REGIMES AND PRESENT DAY RUSSIA
Evgeny Pashentsev
p 302

DISMANTLING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: NEOPOPULISM AND REORIENTATION OF CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN VENEZUELA
Orlando J. Perez
p 326

ARGENTINA, WORLD WAR II, AND THE ENTRY OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS
Raanan Rein
p 349

MILITARY SUBORDINATIONS: DREAMS OF A NIGHT OF DEMOCRACY (FORMS OF MILITARY PARTICIPATION IN LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS)
Hector Luis Saint-Pierre, Daniel Zirker
p 370

RUSSIA AND CHINA: PARTNERS FOR PEACE, STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT
Mikhail Titarenko
p 389

ABOUT THE AUTHORS
p 399

INDEX OF NAMES
p 409


The army’s role in social processes is unequivocal. Armies can liberate like in the April Revolution in Portugal and armies can oppress how it happened under Pinochet regime in Chile. It is naive to assume that the army will observe political neutrality when social development reaches a crisis. The military usually come to power when the civilian authorities are unable to cope due to an acute power crisis.

Hundreds of military coups have been carried out on various continents since the beginning of the 20th century. Quite a few more have failed. Even in the countries with stable political systems but at the same time with powerful armed forces no one serious politician can’t ignore the corporate interests of the military. Many international problems and conflicts in our “civilized times” are examined if no through the sight of modern arms but with due regard for military – political realities. The army ought to obey the laws of the civil society. But the civil society must be enough mature, stable, democratic to really integrate the armed forces in it’s own structure.

The twenty- one original articles presented here serve to enlarge the comprehension of a very complicated problem – the army’s role in politics. In a number of articles only at first glance not dealing with the general issue of the book, are analyzed the tendencies of global and regional developments. Without taking them into account is hardly possible to understand the great potentialities of the army and it’s undoubtedly limited political role.

The authors of this volume are scholars from fifteen countries of South and North America, Europe and Asia. Among them are nine leaders of national academic institutes and centers, academicians, members and leaders of the international scholar associations.

All that glistens is not gold. And not the brilliancy of scientific degrees and titles but the significance of new ideas makes the book really up–to–date. The authors present a panorama of such complexity and vitality that the history of different countries becomes more meaningful and more striking than anything the reader has heretofore imagined.

About the Author

Sergey Alexandrovich Mosgovoy was born on April 27, 1959, in Tbilisi, in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia. In 1982, he graduated from the Naval Political College of Kiev with a degree in Military Politics and Navigation. He received a second degree in 1994, in Naval Operational tactics from the Russian Military Academy. In 1999 he received his Candidate Nauk (Ph.D.) in Government and Municipal Management, specializing in government-church relations, from the Presidential State Service Academy. His doctoral dissertation was entitled "Development of Relations Between the Russian Military and Religious Organizations in the 1990's."

Starting in 1976, Mr. Mozgovoy served in the Navy in the Baltic, Pacific, and Northern Fleets, achieving the rank of Captain, First Class. In recent years, he has served on the General Staff of both the Navy and the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. He is head of the Public Relations Committee, which is responsible for relations between the government and religious organizations and NGO's. In the course of his career, he has been awarded the Red Star and the For Service to the Motherland, USSR Military, 3rd degree and many medals.

From 1995-1997, Mr. Mozgovoy served as Secretary of the Army Relations Committee to the Russian Orthodox Church. He is presently a board member of the Association of Religious Researchers, the Editorial Board of the scholarly journal Religious Studies, and other public organizations (the Submariners' Union, the Soviet Officers' Union, and the Servicemen Trade Union). He is also the director of the Center of Military and Religious Studies.

Mr. Mozgovoy is the author of several books, including, The Role of Religion in the Development of Spirituality Among Soldiers (Moscow 1995) and has co-authored Education: Experience, Organization, and Methodology (Moscow 1998). He is also the author of more than thirty articles on the subjects of freedom of conscience (religion) and the relations between government, military, and religion.




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